How does a past participle work as an adjective?

I'm trying to understand this:

Jack drove the car. Drove is simple past tense.
Jack had driven the car. Drive is past participle.

A participle is a verb that acts as both a verb and an adjective. How is driven describing the car? I'm only using this as an example. Please help me to understand how a past participle acts as an adjective.

2 Answers
Apr 4, 2018


Good question but you seem in a basic level. Your examples here none is an adjective.


Look, I have already answered this question elaborately here by others by this time, please check them out.

However, I am going a bit more too.

In a dictionary, you will see many verbs are, but very few are adjectives.

If I say, tiring is an enemy for a pilot when he is on the cockpit.

Tire v --it is the root word, you many are not familiar with this word frequently.

But if I say, I am tired. Oh! We everyday is very much familiar with this word!

So, everyday when we write we need many adjectives, but they are not available to write enchantingly.

This time we make them by ed and ing adding with a verb! True!

ed is a past participle, ing is a present participle both are adjectives except somewhere ing could be a gerund only, clear? I used there

Tiring is an enemy--
It is come from TIRE

Others: Bore---boring, bored frequent usage.
Excite--exciting, excited.
Break--breaking ( news) , broken (glass) etc numerous.

The bored students went into sleep during the boring lecture.

bored is here functioning like a past participle on students, boring like a present participle on lecture, get sensed?

ing===when noun is going to cause an action.
ed==when noun is already received the action.

Put the formula on any participle, you will see the result, works.

Your example ==drove, a simple past verb
had driven==a simple verb phrase.

Get sense?


Jack had driven the car. (Driven is past participle.)
In this sentence, the past participle is not functioning as an adjective, it's functioning as a main verb.


Examples for the past participle functioning as an adjective:
Jack was a driven man, determined to succeed.
Jack couldn't see the road ahead through the driven snow.
Jack's well driven car wasn't worth much as a trade-in.