How does particle movement differ in different states of matter?
The particle movement differs in the degree of freedom and the energy of motion.
In a solid the particles are locked into a crystal formation and can only vibrate back and forth within the crystal lattice.
Solid have the lowest kinetic energy of all three states of matter for any given substance.
In a liquid the particles are free to move within the volume of the container. The particles are held within the liquid by temporary intermolecular attractions.
Liquids have the second lowest kinetic energy of all three states of matter for any given substance. Some particles within the liquid will randomly gain enough energy to overcome the temporary intermolecular attractions and become a gas while the majority of the particles remain as a liquid.
In a gas the particles are completely free to move. The gases will spread out in all directions occupying the maximum amount of space available. This gives rise to Avogardor's hypothesis that equal volumes of gases will contain equal number of particles
Gases of course have the highest kinetic energy of all three states of matter for any give substance.