How does the brain maintain homeostasis?
The whole human body system maintains homeostasis. Well technically, it's still controlled by the brain! :-)
The human body maintains functionality in a variety of environments to help an individual thrive in different conditions (arctic to the desert). Adaptability is the result of homeostasis.
- Temperature can be controlled through sweat to keep cool, and shivering to stay warm.
- Energy intake and expenditure are balanced through sensations of hunger (for intake) and through work and body heat (for expenditure).
- Sleep. Too little or too much sleep is bad for the body.
- Blood composition. Your blood is composed of different minerals and other stuff like that. You can refer to renal physiology for more information. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renal_physiology
Two of the most important systems for maintaining homeostasis are the nervous and endocrine systems. Basic bodily functions such as heart rate and breathing may be stimulated or slowed under neural control. The nervous system helps regulate breathing and the urinary and digestive systems, and it interacts with the endocrine system. For example, part of the brain triggers the pituitary gland to release metabolic hormones in response to changing caloric demands.
Hormones also help adjust the body's balance of fluids and electrolytes, among other key roles in all the body's systems. Less energetically expensive, but no less important, roles in the maintenance of homeostasis include the lymphatic system's ability to fight infection, the respiratory system's maintenance of oxygen and proper pH levels, and the urinary system's removal of toxins from the blood.
Hope this helps! :-)