What are the key elements of arguments?
There are who main types of arguments: Rogerian arguments and Aristotelian arguments.
Rogerian arguments are used when two or more different parties come together to establish a compromise or make a decision. Generally, there is an introduction to the problem, a solution backed with evidence, an explanation on how it would solve the problem for both (or all) sides, and a conclusion. The steps to this kind of argument can be found at this website.
Aristotelian arguments attempt to prove a point and refute opposing views. They generally have an assertion to state the main point, reasoning to explain why, and evidence to back up the claims. Often they also include a paragraph of context to inform the reader of the general topic, and have a concession paragraph to acknowledge and refute other arguments. Counter arguments are also often used to predict the audiences doubts and preemptively address them.
If you are planning on writing an argumentative essay, this is a good structural guideline for an effective essay with all the common components: