What are the main groups of fungi? What is a characteristic for each group?
The main groups of Fungi are : Zygomycees, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The characteristics of these groups are given below in explanation secction.
Fungi are characterized by the absence of green pigment. These are heterotrophs, i.e. these can not synthesize organic food materials. These derive their food either from dead ad decaying organic matter (saprophytic mode of nutrition) or from living host ( parassitc mode of nutrition ).
Fungi are divided into 3 main groups:
i). The mycelium in this group is branched and coenocytic, i.e.
multinucleate and aseptate. Such mycelium is termed coenocytic.
ii). These reproduce asexually by sporangiospores .,
endogenously within sporangium produced at the tip of
iii). Sexual reproduction is by conjugation and is isogamous
type. The fusing gametes are structuarally and functionally
iv). Zygospores (2n) formed as a consequence of sexual
reproduction is surrounded by a thck wall and undergoes
perennation . It germinates to form germ sporangium that
produces germspores (n) by meiosis.
Ascomycetes (Sac fungi).
i) The mycelium is branched, multicellular and septate. Each cell is
ii). These reproduce asexually by conidiospores (n) produced
exogenously at the tip of conidiophores.
iii). Sexual reproduction is oogamous .
iv). Fruiting body or fructification ascocarp is formed as a
consequence of sexual reproduction. It contains asci. Each
ascus produces 8 ascospores (n) produced endogenously in
ascus as a result of meiosis.
3. Basidiomycetes ( Cup fungi).
i). The mycelium is branched , multicellular and septate. Each cell is
ii). These reproduces asexullay by conidiospoes .
iii). Sexual reproduction is oogamous.
iv). Fruiting body or fructification is termed basidiocarp. It contains
basidia. Each basidium produces basidiospores (n) by meiosis.