What are the major components of soil?

1 Answer
Feb 24, 2018

The major components of the Earth are water, air/gases, minerals, organic and biological components, microorganisms and gases.


There are 5 types of mineral including Water. The percentage of the components vary from time to time.

  1. MINERAL- It is the largest component of the soil and makes about 45% of the soil. It consists of sand,silt and clay. It retains the soils ability to retain important nutrients.

  2. WATER- It is the second basic component of the soil. It may vary from 2% to 50% of the soil. It usually contains added salts and other chemicals.

  3. AIR/GASES- About half of the total mass of the soil has many cavities and holes. It makes 2 to 50% of the soil. The air found in the Earth or soil is very different from the air found in the atmosphere.

  4. ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS- It is the next basic component found in levels of approximately 1% to 5%.It has a very high water holding capacity and thus it can increase the fertility of the soil.

  5. MICROORGANISMS- These are found in the soil in a very high number but covers only 1% of the soil. These are the primary decomposers of the raw materials present in the soil.they eat(consume) water,air and organic matter to recycle raw materials into humus. Other microbes like Nitrogen fixing bacteria helps the plants in intake of the nitrogen gas.

FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE FOLLOW THIS SITE- http://articles.extension.org/pages/54401/basic-soil-components.