What are the most basic units of matter?

Dec 26, 2017

For simplification, we usually say that atoms are the "building blocks" of matter. However, it can be much more complicated than that.

Explanation:

Atoms are the building blocks of matter because they cannot be "broken down" further by chemical means (although we can split them).

Inside an atom consists of three different particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Protons carry a $+ 1$ positive charge and have a mass of $1 a m \setminus u$

Neutrons carry no charge and also have a mass of $1 a m \setminus u$

Electrons carry a $- 1$ negative charge and have a mass of $\frac{1}{1836} a m \setminus u$

$1 a m \setminus u \approx 1.66 \cdot {10}^{-} 27 k g$

Inside of a proton are 3 quarks.

Electrons are in a family called leptons and they are not made up of quarks.

To even go further than that, we would need quantum mechanics to explain that. But here are the simple facts.

Dec 26, 2017

See below .

Explanation:

As far as my knowledge about particle physics is confined ,
In the the standard model of particle physics , there are $\textcolor{\in \mathrm{di} g o}{3}$ categories of particles namely ,
$\textcolor{red}{\text{quarks}}$

$\textcolor{red}{\text{leptons}}$

$\textcolor{red}{\text{Bosons}}$

Probably all Bosons are their own anti-particles.

Quarks and leptons are basic unit of matter which are yet known to be smallest unit .

$\textcolor{g r e e n}{\text{Quarks}}$ include
$\textcolor{b l u e}{\text{up type quarks}}$ [charge on them is $+ \frac{2}{3}$] including
▪up quark ,
▪charm quark,
▪top quark

$\textcolor{b l u e}{\text{down type}}$[charge on them is $- \frac{1}{3}$]
▪down quark
▪strange quark
▪bottom quark

$\textcolor{v i o \le t}{\text{Leptons}}$ on the other hand are categorised on basis of charged and uncharged .
$\textcolor{\mathmr{and} a n \ge}{\text{charged}}$ include:
▪electron
▪tau
▪muon

$\textcolor{\mathmr{and} a n \ge}{\text{Uncharged}}$ include:
▪electron neutrino
▪tau neutrino
▪muon neutrino

{Note: some theories predict that neutrinos are there own anti-particles but some oppose .i believe they are there own anti-particles but its up to you to accept it or not}

When we talk about matter we generally mean atoms those are composed of $\textcolor{g r e y}{\text{fermions & gluons(Boson)}}$