What are the similarities and differences between structural, geometric, and optical isomers?
Structural isomers differ in their connectivity; geometric isomers differ in their geometry.
Take a simple organic formula,
Butene has 2 structural isomers:
Now consider optical isomerism (a subset of geometric isomerism). For a pair of optical isomers, here the connectivity is precisely the same. Nevertheless they are handed; i.e. non-superposable mirror images. For instance, if you had an identical twin, can your left hand shake his right hand, or ice versa? The answer is no, even though their right hand is the mirror image of the left hand. (Interestingly, I am told that identical twins do not possess identical sets of fingerprints).
Here is a tip with regard to chiral centres. If you have correctly represented a chiral centre,