What do metals typically do when they become ions? What about nonmetals?
Metal atoms lose one or more electrons when they become ions. Nonmetal atoms gain one or more electron when they become ions.
Atoms form ions so that they will have a full valence shell, which is 8 electrons (2 for hydrogen).
Sodium, a metal, loses its single valence electron so that the next lower energy level becomes its valence shell with 8 electrons. Losing the single electron gives the sodium ion a
Oxygen, a nonmetal, has 6 electrons in its valence shell, so it gains 2 electrons and forms a