What does aromatization mean?
Aromatization is the conversion of a nonaromatic hydrocarbon to an aromatic hydrocarbon.
There are four common methods of aromatization.
1. Dehydrogenation of naphthenes
Naphthenes are a class of cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. They have the general formula
C₆H₁₂ → C₆H₆ + 3H₂
2. Dehydroisomerization of naphthenes
Methylcyclopentane, C₆H₁₂, is catalytically isomerized and dehydrogenated to form benzene.
C₅H₉CH₃ → C₆H₆ + 3H₂
3. Dehydrocyclization of aliphatic hydrocarbons
Heptane is catalytically converted to toluene.
C₇H₁₆ → C₆H₅CH₃ + 4H₂
Small amounts of platinum on acidified alumina accomplish reactions (1), (2), and (3) readily.
4. Condensation of hydrocarbons
Propane is catalytically converted to benzene during the cracking of petroleum at 600-800 °C.
3C₃H₈ → C₆H₆ + 3CH₄ + 3H₂
Hope this helps.