What happens during meiosis that doesn't occur during mitosis?
Synapsis, cross-over and genetic recombination.
Recall that meiosis has 2 parts; Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
In meiosis I, specifically in Prophase 1, two homologous chromosomes(they have the same length and the same position of centromeres, but does not contain the same genetic material) partner together. This is called synapsis.
Once synapsis is completed, the cross-over and subsequent genetic recombination occurs. The cross-over is the exchange of genetic material between two homologous chromosomes. This is to produce variation between the parent and the child.
Genetic recombination now is the shuffling of genetic materials of 2 alleles(the two X like figures) .