What is the importance of soil bearing capacity in foundations?
Durability of buildings depends on it.
The bearing capacity of soil is defined as the capacity of the soil to bear the loads caused by a foundation. In some soils (such as aluvium) the bearing capacity is not good. Therefore, you have to be careful when you erect a building in such places.
Terzaghi (the founder of Soil Mechanics) developed some equations to express soil bearing capacity. There are other bearing capacity equations (such as Hansen's bearing capacity theory).