What type of chemical bond results from the attraction between a metal cation and a nonmetal anion?
You have to look at the electronegativity of both the anion and cation.
In most cases metals have low electronegativity.
If the metal has a low electronegativity and the non metal has a high electronegativity, an ionic bond would be formed (approximately when the difference in electronegativity is equal to 2 or more). For instance
If the difference is below approximately 1.6 its would be a polar covalent bond, and if its around .2 to .5 its a non polar covalent bond.