A circuit with a resistance of 8 Omega has a fuse with a capacity of 3 A. Can a voltage of 22 V be applied to the circuit without blowing the fuse?

Yes. The current produced by $22 V$ applied to a resistance of $8 \Omega$ will be less than $3 A$
You can use the $V I R$ triangle as a mnemonic to help remember the relationship between voltage $V$, current $I$ and resistance $R$
This can be read as $V = I R$, $I = \frac{V}{R}$ or $\frac{V}{I} = R$
In our example, $V = 22$, $R = 8$, so $I = \frac{V}{R} = \frac{22}{8} = 2.75 < 3$