Can we say "There is no book on the table."? Can we use "no" with a single countable noun?
It is possible but fairly unusual to use "no" this way with a singular countable noun.
We would normally say:
There are no books on the table.
However, if a prior reference exists to a singular book, the given use is proper.
Josi called to Alice, "Bring me the book that's on the kitchen table."
Alice went to the kitchen and looked around. "There is no book on the table," she called back.