How can you tell the difference between an acid and a base given this chemical equation: #C_5H_5N + H_2O -> C_5H_5NH^+ + OH^-#?
Yes. Use the Lewis-Bronsted definition of acids and bases.
The Lewis-Bronsted definition of acids and bases expanded on the Arrhenius definition by making any proton donor an acid, and any proton acceptor a base.
Further, we can use the concept of "conjugate" acids and bases to identify each in this equation. A "conjugate" is the result of the balance between acids and bases. The compound that is an acid on the left-hand side of an equation must produce a "conjugate" that is a base on the right-hand side.
This gives us two ways to identify them in this equation. The first is to identify the proton donors and acceptors. The second is to identify an easily-recognized acid or base and use the conjugate concept to find the others.
In this case it is easiest to recognize the