# How does the number of valence electrons affect how an atom covalently bonds?

Well, by long tradition, we consider a $\text{covalent bond}$ to be the sharing of 2 electrons.........and an $\text{ionic bond}$ to result from the transfer of electrons........
The equilibrium distance that maximizes $\text{nucleus/electron cloud}$ attraction, and minimizes internuclear repulsion, is also known as the equilibrium bond-length between the participating atoms.