How does the number of valence electrons affect how an atom covalently bonds?
Well, by long tradition, we consider a
The modern chemical bond is conceived to be a region of high electron density BETWEEN two positively charged atomic nuclei, such that internuclear repulsion (i.e. BETWEEN the positively charged nuclei) is minimized and a net attractive force results.
The equilibrium distance that maximizes
I have said much the same thing here.