What are commas, parentheses, semicolons, apostrophes, and hyphens?
This is big question.
You asked a question that could be a certificate course for one year!
Nobody could answer you this type of question in short.
Take time and get an authenticated source to learn day by day.
I repeat, follow an authenticated source or book to learn punctuation rules meticulously or be misguided.
Mind it one simple correct punctuation rule can raise your great image too! It says many things.
I usually follow Canadian govt. one authentic source: like language portal by Canada govt.
Or follow Cambridge dictionary.
Or if you like to follow only AP style
Hope it works.