What are three evolutionary innovations that improved the probability of survival on land among vascular plants?

1 Answer

The vascular land plants have the adaptive characters, embryo retention, cuticle, stomata, and vascular tissue.


The vascular plants have evolved different characters to easily withstand on the land situations. Among the adaptations in vascular plants are-

  • Retention of embryo;
  • Thick cuticle on the outer surface of plant's body,
  • Presence stomata for exchange of gases; and
  • The complex vascular bundles for translocation purpose etc.