What occurs after a disturbance in primary succession?
After a disturbance, pioneer species will arrive first.
After a disturbance in which the soil has been destroyed/removed, the pioneer species will arrive first. This is a key part of primary succession. Pioneer species are the species that are well-adapted to harsh conditions and contribute to soil formation, such as lichens and moss.
Once the soil has formed, the ecosystem goes through the stages of ecological succession until another disturbance occurs.