Explain the basic properties of electrical charge?

2 Answers
Dec 31, 2016

Electrical charge is a physical property found within matter. It causes it to experience a force when in the presence of other matter with a charge. Basically, a charge can be positive #(+)# or negative #(-)#.

  • Opposite charges attract and same charges repel. For instance, electrons repel each other, but protons are attracted to electrons.
  • Charges interact more when closer and less when farther.
  • Charges are additive. If one #+1# charge comes near a #-1# charge, the net charge is #0#. For example, a neutral compound must have all of its charges add up to #0#, so since #"Na"_2"O"# would contain two #"Na"^(+)#, it necessarily would contain only one #"O"^(2-)#.
  • Higher charge magnitudes interact more strongly, and vice versa. For instance, that's why #stackrel(1+)"Na"stackrel(1-)"Cl"# has a smaller lattice energy than #stackrel(2+)"Ca"stackrel(2-)"O"#.
Dec 31, 2016

Answer:

The basic properties of charge is the number of electrons that an atom or ion gains or loses to become stable.

Explanation:

If an atom or polyatomic ion loses electrons ( is oxidized ) it acquires a positive charge.
If an atom or polyatomic ion gains electrons ( is reduced ) it aquires a negative charge.

Oxygen with a high electronegativity tends to gain electrons oxidizing other atoms and ions and becoming negative in nature. (Oxygen is reduced)

An example would be water # H_2O# The density of electrons is greater around the Oxygen than the Hydrogen, resulting in the Oxygen acquiring a =2 charge while the two Hydrogen each have a +1 charge.

In the polyatomic ion sulfate #SO_4^-2# the 4 Oxygen atoms each need two more electrons to become stable. This results in a charge of =8 for the 4 Oxygen atoms. The Sulfur with a lower electronegativity than Oxygen will "lose" all six of its valance electrons ( The electrons density will be less on the sulfur). This leaves sulfur with the stable electron structure of Neon.