Question #f4e93

1 Answer
Feb 16, 2017

Answer:

Well, in which Group, which column of the Periodic Table does each element lie?

Explanation:

#"Chlorine"# lies in Group 17; it has 7 valence electrons, all of which can be involved in bonding.

#"Aluminum"# lies in Group 3; it has 3 valence electrons.

#"Sodium"# lies in Group 1; it has the 1 valence electron.

#"Sulfur"# lies in Group 16; it has 6 valence electrons.

#"Chlorine"# lies in Group 17; it has the 7 valence electrons.

Typically, metals, LOSE electrons to form positive ions; certainly sodium metal does this; as does aluminum to form #Al^(3+)# ions. And non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions. And thus chlorine accepts an electron, i.e. it is reduced, to form #Cl^-#:

#1/2Cl_2 + e^(-) rarr Cl^(-)#

And typically sulfur is reduced to form #"sulfide ions"#:

#S + 2e^(-) rarr S^(2-)#

On the other hand, both sulfur and chorine can be oxidized up to #VI+# and #VII+# oxidation states if they react with a more electronegative element, viz. oxygen:

#1/2Cl_2 + 4H_2O rarr ClO_4^(-) + 8H^(+) +7e^(-)#

#S + 4H_2O rarr SO_4^(2-) + 8H^(+) +6e^(-)#

Both mass and charge should be balanced in these equations. Well, is they?