# Question #f4e93

Feb 16, 2017

Well, in which Group, which column of the Periodic Table does each element lie?

#### Explanation:

$\text{Chlorine}$ lies in Group 17; it has 7 valence electrons, all of which can be involved in bonding.

$\text{Aluminum}$ lies in Group 3; it has 3 valence electrons.

$\text{Sodium}$ lies in Group 1; it has the 1 valence electron.

$\text{Sulfur}$ lies in Group 16; it has 6 valence electrons.

$\text{Chlorine}$ lies in Group 17; it has the 7 valence electrons.

Typically, metals, LOSE electrons to form positive ions; certainly sodium metal does this; as does aluminum to form $A {l}^{3 +}$ ions. And non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions. And thus chlorine accepts an electron, i.e. it is reduced, to form $C {l}^{-}$:

$\frac{1}{2} C {l}_{2} + {e}^{-} \rightarrow C {l}^{-}$

And typically sulfur is reduced to form $\text{sulfide ions}$:

$S + 2 {e}^{-} \rightarrow {S}^{2 -}$

On the other hand, both sulfur and chorine can be oxidized up to $V I +$ and $V I I +$ oxidation states if they react with a more electronegative element, viz. oxygen:

$\frac{1}{2} C {l}_{2} + 4 {H}_{2} O \rightarrow C l {O}_{4}^{-} + 8 {H}^{+} + 7 {e}^{-}$

$S + 4 {H}_{2} O \rightarrow S {O}_{4}^{2 -} + 8 {H}^{+} + 6 {e}^{-}$

Both mass and charge should be balanced in these equations. Well, is they?