What is the difference between covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds?
The covalent bond formed between oxygen and hydrogen in water, or hydrogen and fluorine in hydrogen fluoride, or nitrogen and hydrogen in ammonia, or hydrogen and chlorine in hydrogen chloride, is CLEARLY an
But when hydrogen is bound to these strongly electronegative elements, i.e. oxygen or nitrogen or an halogen, charge separation occurs, and the electronegative element polarizes electron density towards itself. We could represent this by the diagrams....
When these dipoles line up in solution this constitutes a potent intermolecular force, and is responsible for the elevated boiling points of these hydrides compared to the lower group hydrides, where the electronegativity difference is not so pronounced.
Hydrogen bonding thus occurs as AN INTERMOLECULAR phenomenon to some extent in
And so the answer in a nutshell, covalent bonds are INTRAMOLECULAR, i.e. within a molecule. If the covalent bond is strongly polarized, i.e. we gots