Do atoms with higher electronegativity for positive or negative ionic bonds?
Atoms with high
Pauling initially used ionization energies and electron affinities, measurable atomic properties, to define his scale. It should follow that electronegative atoms TEND to form anions, and thus oxygen, and fluorine, the most electronegative atoms on the Periodic Table, habitually form
The other chalcogens and halogens, to the right of the Periodic Table and with high nuclear charge that is unshielded by the incomplete valence shell, tend to be oxidizing as well.