Do dipole-dipole interactions influence the evaporation of liquids and condensation of gases?

1 Answer
Mar 12, 2018

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Butane and Acetone have almost the same molar mass. Butane is straight chain alkane with only C-C and C-H bonds and no double bonds. It only interacts with itself through London Dispersion forces (induced dipole induced dipole). It's melting point is -141C and boiling point -1C. So it will boil away in a snow storm.

Acetone is the most simple ketone - 3 carbons with a C=O bond, which is very polar. So it has London Dispersion forces and Dipole-Dipole interactions. Its melting point is -95C and boiling point is +56C.

The significant increase in boiling point can be attributed to polarity of the C=O bond. This molecule does not possess the ability to hydrogen bond with itself, so its increases in mp and bp can be attributed to the polarity of the carbonyl group.