How do you do gas stoichiometry problems at STP?

2 Answers
Mar 19, 2014

Gas stoichiometry problems relate the number of moles of reactants and products, so use the ideal gas law at standard temperature and pressure (273.15 K and 1.00 atm) to solve for the number of moles of gas at a specified volume, V:

#n = (PV)/(RT)#

If V is given in liters, then use the gas constant

#R = 0.082054 (L-atm)/(mol-K)#

At STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure 273 K and 1 atm) we are able to use Avogadro's number of 22.4 L per mole of gas or
22.4 L/mole as our conversion factor in the stoichiometry.


How many liters of hydrogen gas are necessary to react with 10 grams of nitrogen to produce ammonia at standard temperature and pressure?

We begin with a balanced chemical equation

#N_2 + 3H_2 -> 2NH_3#

Now using the given value of 10 grams of nitrogen we will convert using stoichiometry

#grams N_2 -> mol N_2 -> mol H_2 -> Liters H_2#

#10 g N_2 x (1 mol N_2)/(28 g N_2) = 0.357 mol N_2#
(remember #N_2# , 2 x 14 g = 28 g)

Use the mole ratio from the balanced chemical equation to convert moles of #N_2# to moles of #H_2#

#0.357 mol N_2 x (3 mol N_2)/(1 mol N_2) = 1.071 mol H_2#

Now use Avogadro's number 22.4 L/mol to convert moles of #H_2# to Liters of #H_2#.

#1.071 mol H_2 x (22.4 L H_2)/(1 mol H_2) = 23.99 L H_2#

Remember, we can only use the 22.4 L/mole value if the reaction is taking place at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP = 0 C and
1 atm).

Here's a video that might be helpful: