# How do you rank metallic character?

Dec 28, 2016

Usually by electronegativity, i.e. the ability to attract electron density towards oneself. For example:

• Metallic character tends to increase downwards, since the lower halogens are less electronegative than the ones closer to $\text{F}$.

That is reflected in that:

• $\text{F}$ is a gas (${T}_{b p} = - {188.1}^{\circ} \text{C}$),
• $\text{Cl}$ is a denser gas ($\text{3.2 g/L}$ vs. $\text{1.696 g/L}$),
• $\text{Br}$ is a liquid (${T}_{m p} = - {7}^{\circ} \text{C}$, ${T}_{b p} = {58.8}^{\circ} \text{C}$),
• $\text{I}$ is a solid (${T}_{m p} = {113.7}^{\circ} \text{C}$),
• and $\text{At}$ is denser than $\text{I}$ (formally a nonmetal, but denser than a solid!).
• Metallic character tends to increase leftwards, since electronegativity tends to decrease leftwards on the periodic table.

Hence, $\text{Li}$ is more of a metal than $\text{N}$, which is obvious, because ${\text{N}}_{2}$ is a gas in natural conditions, and $\text{Li}$ is literally of the "alkali metal" class.

Overall, it therefore means that metallic character has a general trend towards the lower left of the periodic table (with some exceptions in the transition metals of course).