How would you describe the shapes and relative energies of the s,p,d, and f atomic orbitals?

1 Answer

Answer:

Shapes are described below, the energies are on average in increasing order in your question, for the same #n#.

Explanation:

Energies of valence orbitals can be found here (Appendix B.9):

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_0media_chem/adv_chem/pdf/11054_appB_ts.pdf

The first five are #1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p#. The remaining energy orderings vary depending on the atom. For #"Ca"#, the #4s# is higher in energy than the #3d#. For the remaining 1st row transition metals, the #3d# is higher in energy than the #4s#.

What we can say for sure is, though,

#E_(ns) < E_(np) < E_(nd) < E_(nf)#.


The #ns# subshell has a spherelike shape, and on average, lower energy than the rest of the subshells on the same quantum level #n#.

The #np# subshell has two lobes opposite the origin, and on average has more energy than a #ns# subshell since it has one more angular node, and thus #np# electrons are less core-like (and further away from the nucleus).

#nd# orbitals have five spatial orientations:

Wikipedia

#nf# orbitals have seven spatial orientations:

TFChem