# What are the hybridizations here?

Dec 3, 2016

A. ${\text{sp}}^{2}$; B. ${\text{sp}}^{3}$; C. ${\text{sp}}^{2}$; D. see the image below.

#### Explanation:

A.

The α carbon has no lone pairs and is directly attached to three atoms.

Its hybridization is ${\text{sp}}^{2}$.

B.

The β carbon is directly attached to four atoms.

It is ${\text{sp}}^{3}$ hybridized.

C.

The nitrogen atom is ${\text{sp}}^{2}$ hybridized because the lone pair is involved in resonance with the carbonyl group.

D.

Three atoms contain unhybridized $\text{p}$ orbitals.

All three are involved in resonance of the amide group; all three are ${\text{sp}}^{2}$ hybridized; and all three use their unhybridized $\text{p}$ orbital to form the π cloud of the amide bond.