What characterizes a substance as an acid?
What does the above spray mean?
Well, water undergoes an equilibrium reaction, that has been extensively measured:
Now, clearly, this is an equilibrium reaction, and at
Typical acids are the so-called mineral acids,
Now water is a very important solvent system, yet it is not the only solvent system. I could perform my reactions in say acetic acid or hydrogen fluoride, if I wanted a more acidic solvent than water; or could perform my reactions in liquid ammonia, if I wanted a more basic solvent system.
In liquid ammonia, (which is much harder to study than the water-based solvent system), we conceive the acid/base equilibrium reaction as:
Here, our definition of an acid is the same as previous, but we have moved to a different solvent. The characteristic cation of the ammonia solvent is ammonium ion, whereas the characteristic anion is
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