What is the electron dot structure for Au/gold and why?

1 Answer

Answer:

#"Au"# #cdot#

Explanation:

Gold/Au (atomic number #79#) has only one electron in its outer valence shell.

The #10 xx # #5d# electrons in gold are in a filled energy level, leaving only one electron in the outer shell. The ground state configuration of Gold is

#[Xe] 5d^10 6s^1#

The energy level difference between the #6s# and #5d# is small. This makes it possible for one of the two #6s# electrons to rather be in the #5d# orbitals.

When the #5d# has #10# electrons, the #5d# orbitals are filled. The filled #5d# orbitals make gold very stable.

Furthermore, the #6s# orbital contracts due to scalar relativistic effects (where the #6s# electrons move at about half the speed of light), becoming relatively inaccessible to many reactants, making gold quite inert.