What is the relationship between renewable resource and inexhaustible resource?
"Inexhaustible" resources do not really exist.
Resources are different things for different reasons. They do not usually have any particular relationship to each other. Food supply may have some relationship with water supplies, but is also dependent on solar energy, while water is not.
A real distinction may be in a better definition of "renewable", which is really based on a time-frame. How quickly can a particular resource (food crop, water supply, energy source) be restored after use? NOTHING is really inexhaustible, because all resources ultimately are a form of energy for use - whether in metabolism or industry.
While energy cannot be destroyed, it does change form, and the available amounts can be too diffuse (lots of low-energy instead of concentrations of high energy) to be useful as a resource.