Analysis of Variance
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ANOVA stands for ANalysis Of VAriance.
It is an inferential procedure meant to if more groups of data have the same mean by analyzing the variability between and among the groups. It's like a ttest but for more than 2 groups of data and less probability of committing a type 1 error. It can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a statistical model over another similar (often used to decide what variables include in the model or not).

We generally use a oneway ANOVA when comparing a value among three or more different groups.
A simple example is comparing the average score of a particular school subject among three (or more) different classes. Had it been only two classes, we would have used a twosamples (independent) ttest.
From another perspective, this is actually testing for relationship between the subject score, which is an interval/ratio measure, and class, which is a nominal measure.

variation in different sample eg let consider 2 sample A& B in which there is yellow color seed and green color seed.
variations in sample A eg occurence of yellow seed and green seed in same sample A
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