How are ionic and covalent bonds different?

On the other hand, ionic bonding results from electrostatic interaction between positively charged, and negatively charged ions. In the ionic lattice, there are layers and lattices of interpenetrating positive and negative ions. Certainly, the particles of like charges repel each other...however, if you sum up ALL the attractive and repulsive interactions, the which may certainly be done quantitatively, a net attractive force results, and this is the so-called $\text{lattice enthalpy}$ of an ionic salt.