How do alkenes and alkynes differ from alkanes?
Main difference is that alkanes have single bonds, alkenes have double bonds and alkynes have triple bonds in their structure.
Consider alkanes ;
Also called Paraffin
They have single bonds present in their structure and are called saturated compounds.
They have a general formula CnH2n+2
Carbon is sp3 hybridized
End with suffix -ane
Simplest alkane is methane with chemical formula CH4.
Now Alkenes ;
Also called olefins
They have double bonds present in their structure and are called unsaturated compounds.
They have a general formula CnH2n
Carbon is sp2 hybridized
End with suffix -ene
Simplest alkene is ethane with chemical formula C2H4
Finally alkynes ;
Also called acetylenes
They have triple bonds present in their structure and also called unsaturated compounds.
They have general formula CnH2n-2
Carbon is sp hybridized
End with suffix -yne
Simplest alkyne is Ethyne or acetylene with chemical formula C2H2