# Octet Rule

CH 8 CHEMISTRY EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULE OF OCTET

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## Key Questions

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• But of course...

and we see that in many molecules, like the trigonal bipyramidal ${\text{PCl}}_{5}$, the octahedral ${\text{SF}}_{6}$, and the square pyramidal ${\text{ClF}}_{5}$. There are many other examples among transition metal complexes that I won't mention.

Here, $10$ valence electrons surround phosphorus.

Here, $12$ valence electrons surround sulfur.

Here, $12$ valence electrons surround chlorine.

This is possible because all three central atoms have access to orbitals on the third quantum level, $n = 3$. In all of these cases, the $3 d$ orbitals can be used, allowing extra space to store more than $8$ total valence electrons.

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