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See below for some ideas. Keep in mind that many times words can carry both positive and negative connotations, depending on their use.


Let's take the one-by-one:

  • Jackknife

I'd say this word has a neutral connotation. It can be used to describe a type of knife used by campers and hunters, and also to describe a kind of highway accident (as in "The truck jackknifed on the highway").

  • Switchblade

Another word that describes a type of knife. At one time it may have held a negative connotation (due to its hidden blade and the press-of-a-button activation) but if it still does, I'd consider it to be pretty light. Unfortunately, the world now needs big explosives used in place of other words to catch much negative connotation (as in "He blew that idea up"). However, since the word immediately follows "jackknife" in the list, your instructor may be expecting this solidly in the negative category.

  • Rumble

This word refers to a fight between two or more groups. Often used to refer to gang fights (or at least it used to, with the use of brutal and bloody weapons such as clubs embedded with nails, chains embedded with razors, etc). This word does carry a negative connotation.

  • Contest

Refers to some sort of event where people, through hard work, experience, education, etc. vie to win. Positive connotation word.

  • Hood

A covering over an engine, a stove, a head, or some other thing like that. Neutral connotation when used that way. However, it can also carry a negative connotation (as in "I hired a guy to get back at Jerry. He's a hood and a thug.")

  • Fighter

Most of the time, this holds a positive connotation - the attitude of an individual to struggle against overwhelming odds to achieve victory. This is true whether it's their job (as in a boxer, martial artist, etc) or they are in dire circumstances (as in "Grandma's body is full of cancer, but she's a fighter"). Could be used to denote a negative when the fighter's attitude clashes with the environment they are in (as in "Well... little Jimmy is a fighter. He disrupts his kindergarten class and pushes the other children out of the way to get to the snacks first")

  • Disagree

Usually holds a neutral connotation in that it denotes someone's polite view that someone else's view is incorrect. However, the word "disagreeable" is definitely negative - it refers to someone who will always disagree, no matter the topic.

  • Bicker

A negative connotation word referring to how little kids argue. (Hey! That's mine!... No it isn't!.. Yes it is! Gimme!!! Mom!!!!!!!!!)

  • Hit

A neutral connotation word in the sense that it can refer to the act of making contact with one thing on another (as in "To hit a nail with a hammer" for instance). Can be positive (as in "The baseball player got a hit"). Can also be negative (as in "I'm tired of you two bickering and hitting each other!!!"). In general, however, I'd say it has a neutral connotation.

  • Clobber

Also refers to hitting and again, this can go to the positive ("The baseball player clobbered that ball - it's sailing out of the park!") but usually is used in a more negative way ("I was so angry I didn't just hit him, I clobbered him. He's in hospital now...").


Its root comes from the Greek term páthos meaning “suffering / feeling". The prefix em- derives from the Greek en- “within, in.”

Empathy VS Sympathy
In simple words, Sympathy is feeling for someone else, while Empathy is feeling with someone else. If Tom's cat dies, and you say, "I am really sorry for you." , then you're sympathizing with Tom. Now, if I say, "My cat died last month too, I know how you feel - I am sorry for your loss." ; then I am empathizing with him.

1. I felt a wave of empathy as I watched Al scribble her chemistry notes, remembering how stressful my own note making had been the last year.
(Why empathy? Because I have gone through it.)
2. Jess looked at Becky, who has had a recent miscarriage, with empathy; remembering the year she lost her baby.
(The same reason, she's been through it.)

Hope this helps :)



See below.


There are two types of conflict that can take the story forward.

The first is an internal confict In this case, the struggle is within the character, his feelings and thoughts; usually the main character. With internal conflicts, the character could be fighting with his dual feelings, with a decision he must make or with his own weaknesses in his personality.

Examples of Internal conflict
1. Shakespeare's play Macbeth. In this play, Macbeth is struggling with an internal conflict, his intentions; which turns violent, urging him to murder the king to take his place.
2. J.K Rowling's fantasy Harry Potter. In the fifth book, Harry has an internal conflict which involves his instinct of believing his dream of Sirius getting captured VS the facts.

The other type of conflict is an external conflict. This conflict takes place outside of the character, as in family, or work. External conflicts are struggles between the character and some other factors excluding himself. The main type of external conflict occurs when the protagonist struggles against the antagonist. However, other types of external conflicts can also take place because of other characters, acts of nature, or society in which the character lives.

Examples of External conflicts
1. Shakespeare's play Macbeth. After killing the king, his men turn against him, and he has to fight with his countrymen. This is an external conflict.
2. Shakespeare's tragedy Romeo and Juliet, wherein Romeo and Juliet are in love, but their families and their society intervenes.

Hope this helps :)



Sentences 3 & 4


The subject of a sentence is essentially who/what it's about, or what is being described.

So, what are our subjects in the sentences?

  • Sentence 1: Carson
  • Sentence 2: Gulliver's Travels (a book)
  • Sentence 3: Candidates
  • Sentence 4: Books

Most plural words have an s on the end. The last two sentences are referring to more than one candidate, and more than one book (respectively). These are plural subjects.

You may be tempted to say sentence 2, because "Gulliver's Travels" has an s on the end, but remember, it is a book, which is not plural.

Hope this helps!



It's essentially "so the story about my death is a lie that has tricked all of Denmark."


With Shakespeare, you can usually figure it out if you rearrange the words and then replace any weird-sounding words or phrases with close equivalents/synonyms.
You can rephrase it as "so a forged process of my death rankly abuses the whole ear of Denmark," which might go a step towards helping you decode it, and then you could further simplify the vocabulary by looking up any weird words online or in a dictionary and get something like "so a fake story about my death is doing everyone in Denmark a disservice".

Also, plenty of people have helpfully "translated" Shakespeare. There are a lot of different versions, but one helpful and accessible one is No Fear Shakespeare on



Mulligan's intro lines in "Aaron Burr, Sir" and Angelica's and Burr's lines in "The Schuyler Sisters" are examples that spring to mind.


The line ending with "over four sets of corsets" is a good one. There are actually two pairs of internal rhyming here: the two words ending "-course" and then "four sets"/"corsets".

These are internal rhyming because they're rhymes that involve a word in the middle of a line.

Another good, less risqué example is Angelica's lines from "The Schuyler Sisters": "I've been reading Common Sense by Thomas Paine/ some men say that I'm intense or insane". Here, "sense" is rhyming with "intense", and both are words in the middle of lines.
Burr has internal rhyme in this song, too: "You searching for an urchin who can give you ideals?" He rhymes "searching" and "urchin" mid-line.



D) Cory drove to Middleton in his search for Eloise.


A) Detectives Homer Fry and Janine Small looked high and low for clues.

This can't be the correct answer because it has a compound subject (and the subjects have a descriptor, "detectives", attached).

B) Crocodiles, quiet as logs, lurked on the riverbank.
C) Large and small dinosaurs stalked the grassy plains.

These can't be the correct answer because there are qualifiers and descriptors added onto the simple subject (the crocodiles are quiet as logs; the dinosaurs are large and small).

A simple subject is only one noun that is completing the action in a sentence. The complete subject is the subject along with anything that describes the subject. Therefore, only D has a simple subject that is the complete subject, since Cory does not have descriptors or qualifiers attached.



see below


when using 'but' to mean the same as 'except':

'there's nothing here but oranges'
'there's nothing here except for oranges'

when using 'but' to mean 'only':

'there is but one orange'
'there is only one orange'

when using 'but' to show exception:

'the last but one orange in the line'
where 'last but one' means 'second last', or the orange adjacent to the last in the sequence.



D) by expressing his love for Big Brother


This is the only one that actually happens.

Also, the implication/context of the question is that Winston's rebellion was an indication of (or in itself) "insanity". Therefore, the option that most opposes rebellion (admiration for Big Brother) would be the best indication of his "sanity".



See below:


#(("",ul"Simple",ul"Continuous"),("Present"|,"I study","I am studying"),(" Past"|,"I studied","I was studying"))#

Simple vs. Continuous tells us about action. Present tense tells us that something can happen but doesn't mean it is happening. Continuous tells us that something is happening.

Past vs Present tells us about time.

And so:

Present Simple - I study - ex. I study math.

We know that the person speaking at any given time might be studying math, but we don't know if they are right now.

Present Continuous - I am studying - ex. I am studying math.

We know that the person speaking has a math book open and is actively studying math.

Past Simple - I studied - ex. I studied math.

We know that the person speaking at some point in the past studied math. It could have been earlier in the day, last month, or 80 years ago. We just don't know.

Past Continuous - I was studying - ex. I was studying math when the phone rang.

We know the speaker was recently studying math but that something happened to divide up the time (for all we know, the person could still be studying math).