Nerves and Hormones

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Coordination and Control (Part 1 of 3) - Nerves and Hormones
10:58 — by Jeremy LeCornu

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Key Questions

  • Answer:

    Aside from the types of neurons according to function mentioned, we have the types of neurons according to structure


    The types of neuron according to structure are:

    • Multipolar - these are neurons having one axon and many dendrites

    • Unipolar or pseudo unipolar - these are neurons having an axon that bifurcates close to the cell body with the longer branch extending toward PNS and the other towards the CNS

    • Bipolar - neurons with one dendrite and one axon

    • Anaxonic - neurons with many dendrites but have no true axon. It does not produce action potentials but regulate electrical charges of adjacent neurons

    Mescher, Anthony L. "Junqueira's Basic Histology Text and Atlas 13th ed"

  • Harmones are the chemical substances that are directly secreted by the endocrine system in the blood steam. There are different kinds of endocrine glands which secrete different harmones and constitute our endocrine system like pancreas secretes insulin. Insulin helps to control blood sugar level in the body, ovary gland in females secretes estrogen which help in developing the secondary sexual charatersticks and progestrone during pregnancy, thyroid gland secretes thyroxin which regulates carbohydrate, protien and fat metabolism in the body to provide best balance to the body for growth. They were some examples showing how harmones are useful for the body. There is a very little differrence between the female and male endocrine system that is males have testis as there endocrine gland and females have ovary as there endocrine gland. enter image source here
    The digram illustrates male and female endocrine system.

  • Most hormones circulate in blood, coming into contact with essentially all cells.

    However, a given hormone usually affects only a limited number of cells, which are called target cells.

    A target cell responds to a hormone because it bears receptors for the hormone.

    These receptors are proteins that have a pocket where the hormone or part of it fits. This triggers a cascade of events that triggers the hormone's effects on the cell.

    These receptors are either on the cellular plasma membrane or are inside the cell (usually the nucleus).

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