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Hydrocarbon Derivatives - Crash Course Chemistry #43
8:38 — by CrashCourse

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Key Questions

  • Answer:

    See below:


    There are a lot of functional groups in organic chemistry. I will try to list as many as I can think of that appear often. Forgive me if I miss a few...

    A) Carbon chains:
    enter image source here
    1) Methyl
    2) Ethyl
    3-1) Isopropyl
    3-2) Sec-butyl (s-butyl; add a carbon onto one of the upper carbons in #3#)
    4) Tert-butyl (t-butyl)
    5) Vinyl
    6) Allyl

    B) Oxygen functional groups:
    enter image source here
    1) Alcohol (Hydroxyl group)
    2) Ketone (C=O is the Carbonyl group)
    3) Aldehyde
    4) Carboxylic acid
    5) Ester
    6) Ether
    7) Acid anhydride

    C) Nitrogen functional groups:
    enter image source here
    1) Primary amine
    2) Secondary amine
    3) Tertiary amine
    4) Imine
    5) Iminium ion
    6) Cyano group
    7) Nitro group (note that nitrogen has a #+# charge and the oxygens share a #-# charge)
    8) Primary Amide

    D) Other:
    enter image source here
    1) Epoxide/Oxirane
    2) Alkyl halide
    3) Metal alkyl
    4) Phenyl
    5) Benzyl
    6) Amino acid

  • A functional group is an atom or group of atoms in a molecule that gives the molecules its characteristic chemical properties.

    enter image source here


    it is the general formula of alcohol, we often use R- for alkyl radical, whereas the -OH represents functional group.


    here is the general formula of organic acid, it is due to the attachment of -COOH.

    OK, :)

  • Because functional groups determine chemical properties of compounds.

    Let's start with the defenition of functional groups. So, a functional group is a group of atoms that determine chemical properties of a compound.

    And why is it important?

    Well, if you take a molecule, does not matter how large it is, based on the functional groups present in the molecule, you can predict how it will react .

    Here is an every day example: consider scissors and a long averruncator. Scissors are small and short. enter image source here

    Averruncator is large and long. But despite these size differences they function in the same way: they cut. This is because they have a common functional group : sharp blades enter image source here

    So, instead of memorisation of chemical properties for every single molecule, you can look at its fubctional groups and predict the chemistry of the molecule. And this makes chemistry really, really cool ;)